Why Everyone Loves the Alpha Girl

http://nymag.com/thecut/2017/04/psychologists-explain-high-school-popularity.html?mid=facebook_nymag

“If you are an alpha in high school, in other words, you are not necessarily an alpha for life. The social skills the cool girls (and guys) learned in high school tend not to work very well after they leave. “They’ve gotten so much reward for this skill set and this way of acting among others [that] they become fixated on status as a measure of their worth,” Prinstein explained. “They see everything through a lens of status, constantly thinking about their relationships in a hierarchal way — am I dominant, or not?” Even ten years after graduation, he tells me, the cool kids are still “constantly looking for those signs and signals. But the rest of the world has moved on.”

One thing I appreciate about Home Education is that my kids never have to go through the negative aspects of high school socialisation, as described in this article. My kids may not be oblivious to what happens in schools, as they also have schooled friends and join in a wide variety of extracurricular activities in the community, but they don’t feel obligated to surrender and accept the negative aspects of school socialisation as a life truth or as a creed to live by.

Being the “cool” kids in high school doesn’t get you anywhere in life once you’re out of school. The cool rebellious kids in high school, once they leave school, will either have to reinvent themselves and relearn social conventions to fit into the big wide world and the society they live in, or risk burning out and end up struggling to make ends meet or in jail.

I don’t think all schools are like this though. I went to an extremely geeky girls’ school in Singapore for the top 10% of PSLE scorers (PSLE is the national exam in English, Maths and Science that every 12 year old in Singapore has to take before finishing Primary school the same year). In the school I went too, alpha girls tended to all be the ones who were nice girls and the best at sport and academics. I know it wasn’t like this in other conventional schools in Singapore. Certainly when I entered the workplace I started to learn about the wider world and how unusual the environment of my geek school was, and how growing up in that environment had shaped me into someone who was quite unprepared and unskilled at the ways of the wider world.

I don’t think the kind of school I went to was ideal, because we were sequestered away from normal society for most part of the day – long days at school and tonnes of difficult advanced homework meant we hardly had a social life outside of school with people not from our school.

I think with home education, the best of both worlds can be achieved in some ways, allowing the child to still be aware of the wider world, but not sequestered to any particular school social environment and forced to socialise in negative ways. Yes I find I’ve had to work harder to make sure my kids are socialised appropriately but not to the extent of being socialised negatively, but seeing my kids grow up happy and well-adjusted is one of the greatest pleasures of my life.

The Secret World of Codes and Code Breaking : nrich.maths.org – BLETCHLEY PARK TRIP RESOURCE

https://nrich.maths.org/2197

I thought this would be a great resource for anyone considering taking their children to Bletchley Park. We’re planning a trip to Bletchley Park soon and my kids know nothing about code-breaking. I feel a visit to Bletchley Park would be much more enjoyable for the kids if they went there already knowing some of the background behind it. As a home educator, I would love for them to do some of the school workshops offered at Bletchley Park, which groups of home educators are eligible to arrange as “school groups”.  It’s a fantastic opportunity. 

In the coming days and weeks, I’ll be posting more links to resources that I think might be of use to introducing children to wartime code-breaking which could be related to Bletchley Park. If you’re interested in all these links, feel free to click on the tag at the bottom of this post labelled “Bletchley Park”.  

Little Passports subscription – no thumbs up from me

I have been subscribing a year almost and now want to cancel this. If you’re contemplating getting this for your child, I hope this blog post helps inform your decision.

Pros :

– Something new in the post every month

– Fun introduction to a different country every month

Cons:

– Subscription fee is way overpriced for what you receive. I’ll tell you what you receive and you can also Google it online. Some have also uploaded photos of the stuff in every package online. One website like this I think is a Montessori-type website featuring Little Passports. The first month, you get the cardboard suitcase, which makes the mail package fairly large. You think wow, a large parcel box like that is going to arrive every month from then on. No in actual fact, all you will get after that first mailing is a thin padded envelope that will slip through your mailbox easily without needing for you to sign for it. Yes and that’s because the contents in each month’s package are really little.

1) You get a printed piece of A4 paper with activities like word searches and things on both sides of the paper.

2) You get a printed piece of C5 paper which is supposed to be a pretend letter written to you by your Little Passports pretend “penpals”, Sam and Sofia.

3) You get like 4 small stickers to stick on your Little Passports cardboard suitcase and pretend passport.

4) And lastly you get a very small and poor quality toy that is supposed to be from the country of the month – usually the toy would be some piece of tat that breaks easily or is worth no more than £2 in the shops – effectively “party bag fillers”.

Altogether these 4 items cost £13.95 per month. If you have the inclination to do so, just make up your own pretend letter from pretend pen pals (or find real ones from these countries online if possible), make up your own or download and print some worksheets or wordsearches from online sources, research online for toys that traditionally hail in that country and source it on the net or in real shops. Bet you can find ones of better quality. Lastly, make your own stickers with country flags on them or just ditch the stickers if they’re no big loss to your kids. £13.95 a month a package,  with 36 packages in total to collect. That’s £500+ you’ll pay in total over 3 years if you keep the subscription until you’ve received all 36 monthly packages. Is that really the kind of money you think worth spending on a very basic standard of Geography and cultural awareness exposure from purchasing this subscription? I bet if you saved your money, you could buy a tonne of resources to expose your child to more of this subject, and still have money left in the kitty after!

Alright, I am not asking for quantity over quality, I am just asking for quality and substance. Right now, the product lacks quality and quantity, lacks substance. Might be fine for an 8 or 9 year old but way too easy and basic for my 10 year old even, who by the way isn’t even a very academic child.

– What a bummer too that so far, despite attempts by home educators both in UK and the US to secure good educational discount deals with Little Passports for groups of us, Little Passports has been very unwilling to budge from their meagre 15% discount code which they already offer to all potential customers. That’s a pretty poor saving. Their classroom subscriptions for US schools works out at USD$16.50 per month for 30 packages. Now that’s the price home educators want, as we can group together and make group purchases of that number or more. Why aren’t Little Passports willing to do us a deal like they already do with schools? Do they not consider what we’re doing a form of teaching and schooling? Or do they suppose all/most home educators are rich and therefore will spend silly money on this? And if they wanted to play the numbers game, well there are a far lot more of us out there than you think, and we do tend to club together for deals and groupbuys for educational materials. They can easily get 100s of home educators subscribing to them, if they are willing to lower prices for us. Home educators already get a lot of discounts and deals together this way, and word travels fast in our community. We could potentially get you lots of subscribers in a small amount of time. Do you want to do business or what?

– Customer service is generally poor and slow to respond – quick to take your money though! And this is especially risky for non-US subscribers because there is no way to contact them other than by email or social media. They take a day or more to respond to every email. Sometimes quite erratically, they respond on the same day. And the fact it is all email-based makes it quite easy for them to ditch responsibility really. They could just ignore you. And well, what is their contact address should you wish to write a letter of complaint? And how would that work sending a recorded letter all the way to America from the UK? Expenses paid by yourself or them? (The answer is you)

And who can you report them to for questionable business practices if you live in the UK and perhaps have little knowledge of American consumer laws or perhaps because of the fact you aren’t a US resident, you might not get the help you need by law enforcement or the ombudsman? And when the customer service reps do respond, they are good with general politeness and that certain American “peppiness” but at the end of the day, issues remain unsatisfactorily resolved and they don’t budge no matter your objection.

For instance, my child’s package did not arrive on the expected date one month. I was worried it might have gotten lost in the mail and contacted them but all the said back to me was a) wait for it to arrive b) items aren’t tracked (well with the pricing and the cheap quality of materials, it should, really.) so they can’t tell me where the item is other than it has been sent. Eventually the package arrived late by a week or so c) just a sorry from them. Nothing else. If the package had arrived later or never arrived, I have no idea if they will even resend the package. Annoying thing is that they will continue taking the monthly payment from your card on time though.

– Speaking of monthly card payments, that takes us to the next important major cons about Little Passports – their requirement of every subscriber to pass them their credit or debit card details so they can take payment continuously during the entire subscription period. Now did you know that when you give an online retailer your card details to take payment as and when they wish, you have basically lost a huge amount of control on your end as to stopping any future payments, if you should ever feel disgruntled about the product. Basically there is no way you can stop these future payments Little Passports will take from you if they choose to keep taking them, if your bank is unwilling to do anything about it for you. Some banks will insist that such continuous payments can never be cancelled as long as the company keeps taking them, because some banks will tell you once you have given your card details away to a company, you have basically given up control over the matter and there will be nothing the bank can do about stopping future payments. Hopefully your bank won’t be like that. In the worst case scenario, the only thing you can do to stop further payments to be taken is to close down your bank account and reopen another one. Because even if you applied for a change of card number and kept your old account, some banks will just transfer Little Passports’ authority to take payments, to the new card associated with your bank account, so they can continue taking payments from your new card number!

So when you entrust your card payment details to a company like Little Passports, which to all intents and appearances seem to be a fully online company with no physical address nor call centre, you are basically trusting that nothing will ever go wrong as far as dealings with them are concerned, and that nothing will ever happen that could be the reason why you might wish to stop them taking another monthly payment off your payment card. Big, big risk. Especially with the poor level of customer care I have received. My advice to you after my own experiences is never hand over your card details for recurring payments for any subscription. If possible, use Direct Debit or Standing Orders.

– In addition, they have a very odd billing system I find, in which they take your money in advance, usually around 25th of the month, for the next month’s shipment which is expected to arrive around mid-month. Once they have taken your money, if you ask for a cancellation and refund, they will refuse to refund anything to you, saying that the packages are already in the process of being prepared and shipped and they cannot take the package back. What kind of preparation and airmail shipment method from the US takes just over 2 weeks to complete? They are basically saying that from round about the 25th of the month till round about the middle (15th) of the following month, the packages are in the process of being prepared and airmailed to you. Packages that typically contain one tiny toy, 2 sheets of printed paper, and a sheet of about 4 small stickers that isn’t bigger than your palm. I can’t imagine how that could take a lot of time and effort to pack and send. And the US is a first world country and not so far from the UK, so airmail packages from the US typically arrive in UK within a week of postage. In general, it’s all a bit BS really.

– If you’re thinking of purchasing more than 1 subscription for 1 household, perhaps so that each child in the household can have their own package, well I would caution against that. I purchased 2 subscriptions from the start so 2 of my children can have their own sets. Unfortunately the past 2 or 3 of my son’s packages didn’t arrive at the same time as my daughter’s, which affected his enjoyment of the packages – basically the surprise element was gone once he’d seen what his sister had received first. The surprise element of these packages was the main reason why I subscribed to Little Passports. As a home educator, I am used to planning and arranging curricula resources for my children. I could easily have gotten books, worksheets and workbooks or online resources to help my kids learn Geography and cultural awareness. However I notice my kids were more interested in a subject if there is a sensory aspect or a surprise element to it. I tried Little Passports out as it seemed to fit those expectations. Unfortunately it started out fine and then became less satisfactory as time went on due to the above-mentioned issues. When I contacted Little Passports about the lack of synchronicity with the mailing of both packages, I just got an answer that basically meant the company can’t do anything about it. Not only that, the company couldn’t track the packages so if one came late (and once my son’s package did come as late as nearly 2 weeks longer than his sister’s), all the company rep could tell me was they’re sorry and that I must just wait for the packages to arrive.

I felt the company could at least try to ensure that 2 orders from 2 children with the same surname and therefore from the same family at the same address (i.e. siblings) could be sent at the same time so they arrive together. It just makes sense to do so, right? But apparently this is not possible, according to their rep 😕

– And lastly, they have a very poor online  account management system. Below are a few incidents that have happened :

– I forgot my password (or I assumed I did since I tried what I thought was the password I’d set initially and it didn’t work) when I needed to log in one day to halt my shipments for a month. The customer rep I emailed just didn’t address the issue of my password, but she halted the shipments for me.

– When I emailed them to unsubscribe, and according to their online website FAQs, if you want to cancel subscription, all you have to do is email their customer support and give 30 days notice. Well when I emailed customer support to cancel subscription, she said I had to log into my account to do so myself! Well since my online login and password issue still remains unresolved for months, how can I? Why can’t she cancel the subscription herself? Even their FAQs say you just email customer support and give 30 days notice. So why now is she saying I have to log into my online account and unsubscribe from there myself? Conflicting information much? 😕 Below is a screenshot of their company policy from their website on cancelling subscriptions :

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– Once my son tried going onto their online portal to do the “additional online fun activities”, but we couldn’t log in. Emailed their customer reps only to be given login details but the fields for them were blank in the email. Duh… so this didn’t resolve anything. Luckily for us, after examining his Little Passports suitcase “boarding passes” I realised the problem may be the fact I hadn’t keyed in the correct boarding pass code for him. So problem resolved by myself, no thanks to the customer reps who seemed to not even know much about how the company system operates – ditto for my previous point about conflicting advice on subscription cancellation policies.

And just for interest, I went on Little Passport’s Facebook page to look at their Visitor Posts to see if others were having similar issues to mine. Well I found quite a few. To take a look yourself, go to https://www.facebook.com/littlepassports/

Click on the small arrow next to the word “Visitor Posts”  to view the full list of posts made by various visitors.  I’ve indicated it with a red arrow in the screenshot below.

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And below this paragraph are screenshots of the complaints, for the month of January 2017 alone, posted by Little Passport customers on the Little Passports Facebook page. I’m sure there are more if you want to look into their page. Hmm clearly a recurring pattern there amongst the complaints mainly relating to delivery issues, customer service issues, and charging and unsubscription issues.

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I hope this information is useful to anyone considering subscribing to Little Passports from the UK especially. Also, Little Passports, if you’re reading this, you might think this all sounds harsh, but I promise you if you actually manage to get my issues resolved satisfactorily, I will comment here as truthfully as I can about it. All of your usual pleasantries in your emails will sound nothing but insincere if you fail to be able to resolve your customer issues. I await any further emails from you in good faith and I hope you can understand how frustrated I have been at dealing with your company, which is why I want to cancel now.

You could be doing so much better. You have a great concept in your hands. It is on the strength of the concept that customers flock to you. If you really try and work on the issues surrounding your customer service, the quality of your materials, and your online account portal for customers, you could gain a lot more customers and not lose customers like me who have had frustrating experiences with you.

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UPDATE:  I received a final reply from the rep today which sounded as if she didn’t understand the issues I’ve had with the company in the past 10 months. She said she wasn’t able to respond timely because of timezone issues, but she was apologetic and said she has made sure my account has been cancelled straight away. I can’t fault the customer reps when they do respond. Rude is not a word that describes them. However the problems still remain, so it could be a company policy issue. Something the directors should decide. Also I suggest timezone issues affecting customer service rep response should not be present if this company wants to be established in the UK market as well. They used to restrict their business to US-only customers, and only last year they started shipping to UK customers too. But it would improve their UK customer service if they had UK-based reps or at least US ones who can man the customer service systems during daytime hours in the UK. And for goodness sakes, they really need to fix their online portal, delivery methods, and charging issues.

I also called my bank today to explain my situation. Having looked at UK-based online forums where people described their difficulties in getting their banks to stop recurring subscription card payments such as this, I was expecting there could be a chance my request could be refused. However I got transferred by the phone banking customer rep to the right person in the company handling this sort of thing, and this lady was very helpful and understanding. She asked me to describe the details of what happened and why I was wanting the payments to be stopped. I explained and didn’t even need to go into excruciating detail, but she basically replied and said it sounds like this company isn’t interested in stopping the payments, and then told me she will ensure all attempts by Little Passports to claim future payments will be refused as of immediate effect. She also said I should receive a letter in the post soon confirming this. How’s that for efficient and responsive customer service? 🙂

Getting Hit on the Head Lessons (#) – Alfie Kohn

http://www.alfiekohn.org/article/getting-hit-head-lessons/

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EDUCATION WEEK
September 7, 2005

Getting Hit on the Head Lessons

Justifying Bad Educational Practices as Preparation for More of the Same

By Alfie Kohn

Suppose you have a negative reaction to a certain educational practice but you’re unable to come up with any good reasons to justify your opposition.  All is not lost:  You can always play the “human nature” card.  Never mind whether it’s a good thing to help students become caring and compassionate, for example, or to work at reversing segregation.  Simply assert that everyone is ultimately driven by self-interest, or that people naturally prefer to be with their own kind.  Presto!  All efforts to bring about change can now be dismissed as well-meaning but unrealistic.

Conversely, no logic or data are necessary when you find a practice you happen to like.  Just insist that what you favor is rooted in the natural inclination of our species.  A search of the archives of this very publication reveals that various individuals have taken this tack in support of many different policies, including standardized testing (“It’s just human nature that when performance is measured, performance improves”) and extrinsic incentives (“Human nature . . . has always demanded, for peak performance, a potential reward consistent with effort put forth”).  A lack of interest in school policies on the part of parents, a resistance to change on the part of teachers, even the practice of holding adolescent boys back a year to enhance their athletic prospects (“redshirting”) have all been casually attributed to human nature.

While such assertions are never accompanied by evidence (presumably because it doesn’t exist), they do prove remarkably effective at shutting down discussion.  Those against whom this rhetorical ploy is used find themselves stymied because it’s not easy to defend something utopian, or to oppose something unavoidable.

Here’s another option for those who would rather not have to offer a substantive defense of their views:  In response to a humane and respectful educational practice, they can say, “Yeah, but what’s going to happen to these kids when they learn that life isn’t like that?”  Invoking a dismal future, like invoking human nature, can work both ways – to attack practices one opposes and also to promote practices one prefers.  I’ve lost track of how many times I’ve heard someone respond to the charge that a certain policy is destructive by declaring that children are going to experience it eventually, so they need to be prepared.

This kind of reasoning is especially popular where curriculum is concerned.  Even if a lesson provides little intellectual benefit, students may have to suffer through it anyway because someone decided it will get them ready for what they’re going to face in the next grade.  Lilian Katz, a specialist in early childhood education, refers to this as “vertical relevance,” and she contrasts it with the horizontal kind in which students’ learning is meaningful to them at the time because it connects to some other aspect of their lives.

Vertical justifications are not confined to the primary grades, however.  Countless middle school math teachers spend their days reviewing facts and algorithms, not because this is the best way to promote understanding or spark interest, but solely because students will be expected to know this stuff when they get to high school.  Even good teachers routinely engage in bad instruction lest their kids be unprepared when more bad instruction comes their way.

In addition to forcing educators to teach too much too early, the current Tougher Standards craze has likewise emphasized a vertical rationale – in part because of its reliance on testing.  Here, too, we find that “getting them ready” is sufficient reason for doing what would otherwise be seen as unreasonable.   Child development experts are nearly unanimous in denouncing the use of standardized testing with young children.  One Iowa principal conceded that many teachers, too, consider it “insane” to subject first graders to a 4½-hour test.  However, she adds, “they need to get used to it” – an imperative that trumps all objections.  In fact, why wait until first grade?  A principal in California uses the identical phrase to justify testing kindergarteners:  “Our philosophy is, the sooner we start giving these students tests like the Stanford 9, the sooner they’ll get used to it.”

What we might call the BGUTI principle — “Better Get Used To It” – is applied to other practices, too:

*  Traditional grading has been shown to reduce quality of learning, interest in learning, and preference for challenging tasks.  But the fact that students’ efforts will be reduced to a letter or number in the future is seen as sufficient justification for giving them grades in the present.

*  The available research fails to find any benefit, either academic or attitudinal, to the practice of assigning homework to elementary school students.  Yet even educators who know this is true often fall back on the justification that homework – time-consuming, anxiety-provoking, and pointless though it may be — will help kids get used to doing homework when they’re older.  One researcher comes close to saying that the more unpleasant (and even unnecessary) the assignment, the more valuable it is by virtue of teaching children to cope with things they don’t like.

*  Setting children against one another in contests, so that one can’t succeed unless others fail, has demonstrably negative effects — on psychological health, relationships, intrinsic motivation, and achievement – for winners and losers alike.  No matter:  Young children must be made to compete because – well, you get the idea.

I realize, of course, that many readers regard these practices as desirable in their own right.  They may believe that competitive struggle brings out the best in children, that grading students is a constructive form of evaluation, that standardized tests accurately assess the most important aspects of learning, or that, after a full day in school, kids ought to take home more assignments regardless of whether the data show any advantage to doing so.  My beef here isn’t with people who hold such beliefs.  It’s with those who admit these practices may be damaging but defend them on BGUTI grounds.

Even if a given practice did make sense for those who are older – a very big if – that doesn’t mean it’s appropriate for younger children.  Almost by definition, the BGUTI defense ignores developmental differences.  It seems to assume that young children ought to be viewed mostly as future older children, and all children are just adults in the making.  Education, in a neat reversal of Dewey’s dictum, is not a process of living but merely a preparation for future living.

But the issue here isn’t just preparation — it’s preparation for what is unappealing.  More than once, after proposing that students should participate in developing an engaging curriculum, I have been huffily informed that life isn’t always interesting and kids had better learn to deal with that fact.  The implication of this response seems to be that the goal of schooling is not to nourish children’s excitement about learning but to get them acclimated to doing mind-numbing chores.  John Holt once remarked that if people really felt that life was “nothing but drudgery, an endless list of dreary duties,” one would hope they might “say, in effect, ‘I have somehow missed the chance to put much joy and meaning into my own life; please educate my children so that they will do better.’”

Another example:  It’s common to justify rewarding and punishing students on the grounds that these instruments of control are widely used with grown-ups, too.  And indeed, there are plenty of adults who do nice things only in order to receive some sort of reward, or who avoid antisocial acts just because they fear the consequence to themselves if they’re caught.  But are these the kinds of people we hope our kids will become?

This leads us to the most important, though rarely articulated, assumption on which BGUTI rests – that, psychologically speaking, the best way to prepare kids for the bad things they’re going to encounter later is to do bad things to them now.  I’m reminded of the Monty Python sketch that features Getting Hit on the Head lessons.  When the student recoils and cries out, the instructor says, “No, no, no.  Hold your head like this, then go, ‘Waaah!’  Try it again” – and gives him another smack.  Presumably this is extremely useful training . . . for getting hit on the head again.

But people don’t really get better at coping with unhappiness because they were deliberately made unhappy when they were young.  In fact, it is experience with success and unconditional acceptance that helps one to deal constructively with later deprivation.  Imposing competition or standardized tests or homework on children just because other people will do the same to them when they’re older is about as sensible as saying that, because there are lots of carcinogens in the environment, we should feed kids as many cancer-causing agents as possible while they’re small to get them ready.

To be sure, we don’t want students to be blindsided by destructive practices with which they’re completely unfamiliar (although this seems rather unlikely in our society).  But how much exposure do they need?  Must they spend months preparing for a standardized test to get the hang of it?  Sometimes preparation can take the form of discussion rather than immersion.  One need not make students compete, for example, in order to help them anticipate – and think critically about – the pervasiveness of competition in American culture.

Perhaps the preparation argument even fails on its own terms by virtue of offering a skewed account of what life is like for adults.  Our culture is undeniably competitive, but cooperative skills are also valued in the workplace – and competitive schooling (spelling bees, awards assemblies, norm-referenced tests, class rank) discourages the development of those skills.  Similarly, adults are more likely to be evaluated at work on the basis of how they actually do their jobs than by standardized test results.  Nor, for that matter, is there much after graduation to justify the practices of same-age groupings or 50-minute periods.  In short, we’re not making schools for little kids more like “real life”; we’re just making them more like schools for older kids.

So if these practices can’t be justified as pragmatic preparation, what is driving BGUTI?  One sometimes catches a whiff of vinegary moralism, the assumption that whatever isn’t enjoyable builds character and promotes self-discipline.  Mostly, though, this phenomenon may be just one more example of conservatism masquerading as realism.  When children spend years doing something, they are more likely to see it as inevitable and less likely to realize that things could be otherwise.

“You’d better get used to it” not only assumes that life is pretty unpleasant, but that we ought not to bother trying to change the things that make it unpleasant.  Rather than working to improve our schools, or other institutions, we should just get students ready for whatever is to come.  Thus, a middle school whose primary mission is to prepare students for a dysfunctional high school environment soon comes to resemble that high school.  Not only does the middle school fail to live up to its potential, but an opportunity has been lost to create a constituency for better secondary education.  Likewise, when an entire generation comes to regard rewards and punishments, or rating and ranking, as “the way life works,” rather than as practices that happen to define our society at this moment in history, their critical sensibilities are stillborn.  Debatable policies are never debated.  BGUTI becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Finally, there is a remarkable callousness lurking just under the surface here:  Your objections don’t count, your unhappiness doesn’t matter.  Suck it up.  The people who talk this way are usually on top, issuing directives, not on the bottom being directed.  “Learn to live with it because there’s more coming later” can be rationalized as being in the best interests of those on the receiving end, but it may just mean “Do it because I said so” and thereby cement the power of those offering this advice.

If a practice can’t be justified on its own terms, then the task for children and adults alike isn’t to get used to it, but to question, to challenge, and, if necessary, to resist.

Copyright © 2005 by Alfie Kohn. This article may be downloaded, reproduced, and distributed without permission as long as each copy includes this notice along with citation information (i.e., name of the periodical in which it originally appeared, date of publication, and author’s name). Permission must be obtained in order to reprint this article in a published work or in order to offer it for sale in any form. Please write to the address indicated on the Contact Us page.
 www.alfiekohn.org — © Alfie Kohn